A holiday in Turkey is a treat no matter where you look. From gastronomy, to natural landscapes to the pampering of a hammam, Turkey is the place of stay in the family, in the two and even the single. Turkey is an Eurasian transcontinental country. Asian Turkey, which includes 97% of the country, is separate from the European Turks in the Bosphorus, the Marmara Sea and the Dardanelles. European Turkey comprises 3% of the country. It is surrounded by the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Turkey offers the ideal combination of tourist packages for all groups of tourists with competitive prices. Natural beauty, for which many of us choose holidays in Turkey each season, has formed with time, due to frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The most important city to visit if you opt for a stay in Turkey is Antalia. And among the great "check" targets are the ancient city of Troy and the two high peaks of Mount Ararat.
Sitting and general information about Turkey:
Turkey is proud of two continents. 97% of the country's surface is in South-West Asia (Anatolia peninsula) and 3% in Europe (Balkan Peninsula). Did you know she has borders with eight countries? With Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; with Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan in the north-east; with Iran (Persia) to the east; and with Iraq and Syria to the south. She is a member of the UN, NATO, OSCE, OECD, OIC and the Council of Europe. In October 2005, the European Union opened accession negotiations with Ankara. Even though it is a country in Europe. For a Turkish stay, you need a passport. You will surely want to take a step in the other realm.
The Bosphorus Strait is a big attraction for a holiday in Turkey. She separates south-west Asia from Southeast Europe. Anatolia is located between the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea to the west. Some geographers consider Turkey as part of Europe due to certain cultural, political and historical characteristics. Due to its geographical position between Europe and Asia and between the three seas, Turkey was a historical crossroads. It was also the home and battlefield of several great civilizations and a trade center.
Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic, with an old cultural and historical legacy. Turkey has become more and more integrated through Western membership in organizations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and the major G-20 economies. Turkey has begun the full EU negotiations in 2005, has been an associate member of the European Economic Community since 1963 and reached the agreement of the Customs Union in 1995. Turkey has also promoted cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the world of East, in particular with the Middle East and with the Turkish states of Central Asia, through membership in organizations such as the Islamic Conference and Economic Cooperation Organization. Given its strategic location, developed economy, and modernized military, Turkey is ranked as a regional power by world politicians and economists.
Selgiucian Turks began migrating to the place now called Turkey in the 11th century. The process was accelerated by the victory of the Seliguits on the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert. The Sultanate of Rum of the Selgiucian Turks controlled much of Central Anatolia until the Mongol invasion of 1243. Starting with the 13th century Ottoman Turks united Anatolia and created an empire that comprised south-east Europe, Southwest Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed after the defeat of World War I, parts of it were occupied by victorious allies. A group of young officers in the Turkish army, a group led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, organized resistance to allies; in 1923 they established the modern Republic of Turkey, with Atatürk as the first president of this.
The European side of Turkey, East Thrace, forms the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. The Asian area of the country, Anatolia (or Asia Minor), consists of a central high plateau with narrow, coastal plains between the Pontician Mountains and Koroglu in the North, and the Taurus Mountains in the South. Mountain landscapes are more prevalent in East Turkey, from where rivers like Euphrates, Tigers and Aras originate. Also in this region is Turkey's highest point, Mount Ararat (5,137 m) and Van Lake, the largest lake in the country.
Turkey is divided into seven regions: Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, East Anatolia, Southeast Anatolia and the Mediterranean. The unregulated terrain of the northern part of Anatolia forms a long and narrow stretch along the Black Sea coast. The landscape is becoming more and more harsh as it progresses eastwards. The various landscapes of Turkey are the result of complex earth movements, which have formed the region over thousands of years, and still manifest itself in frequent earthquakes, occasional and volcanic eruptions. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles owes its existence to the lines of fault that cross Turkey, which led to the creation of the Black Sea. There is a line of fault in the North of the country, stretching from West to East, which caused a major earthquake in 1999.
Turkey's coastal areas bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea have a temperate Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and slightly cool wet winters. Turkey's coastal areas bordering the Black Sea have temperate oceanic climate with heat, wet summers, wet winters. Turkey's Black Sea coast receives the largest amount of rainfall and is the only region of Turkey that has many rainfalls all year round. In the E side of the coast the averages are 2,500 mm / year.
Turkey's coastal areas bordering the Marmara Sea including Istanbul connecting the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea have a climate of transition between the temperate Mediterranean climate and the warm temperate oceanic climate, moderate summers of dry and cold, dry winters. The snow is in the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea almost every winter, but usually not more than a few days. Snow on the other hand is rare in the Aegean coast and very rare in the Mediterranean coastal areas.
Conditions may be much tougher, more arid inside. The closed coastal mountains impede Mediterranean influences from the enlargement routes, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with contrasting seasons. The winters on the plateau are severe. Temperatures from -30 ° C to -40 ° C can be in Eastern Anatolia, and the snow can stay on the ground for at least 120 days a year. In the west, average winter temperatures below 1 ° C. The summers are hot and dry, with temp. general over 30 ° C day. Annual average precipitation of about 400 mm, with annual sums determined by elevations. The driest regions are Konya Plain and Malatya Plain, where annual rainfall is less than 300 mm. May be generally the wettest since July and August are the driest. Turkey's climate is temperate-seaside on the Black Sea coast and subtropical on the Mediterranean coast.
Turkey has a diverse culture, based on the merging of the various elements of the Ottoman Turks, the Anatolian Ottomans (which was in itself a continuation of Greek-Roman and Islamic cultures) and western culture and traditions, which began with the Westernization of the Ottoman Empire continues today. This mixture arose as a result of the meeting of the Turks and their culture with the peoples recovered during their migration from Central Asia to the West. Artistic expression methods have evolved while Turkey has turned from an Ottoman Empire based on religion into a modern national state with a strong separation between the state and religion. In the early years of the republic, the government invested a lot of resources in art, such as in museums, theaters, opera and architecture. Various historical factors have played an important role in defining Turkey's modern identity. Turkey's culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, to the same degree as preserving religious and historical values.
Top cities in Turkey
The capital of Turkey is the city of Ankara, but the historical capital of Istanbul remains the financial, economic and cultural center of the country. Other major cities are İzmir, Bursa, Adana, Trabzon, Malatya, Gaziantep, Erzurum, Kayseri, İzmit (Kocaeli), Konya, Mersin, Eskisehir, Diyarbakır, Antalya and Samsun. About 68% of Turkey's population lives in urban centers. Turkey's settlement at Europe's intersection with Asia makes it a country of great geostrategic importance. From the ethnic point of view, the Turks form the majority of the population, but there is also an important minority of Kurds. The predominant religion in Turkey is Islam, and the official language of the country is Turkish.
Istanbul (formerly Constantinople, former Byzantium) is Turkey's largest city. The only city in the world on the shores of two continents, Europe and Asia, Istanbul has a population of about 14 million. The city was founded by Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, on the site of the former Byzantine Greek colony. Under the name of Constantinople, the city served as the capital of the Byzantine Empire for more than a millennium. In 1453, it was conquered by the Turks, and later became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Only on March 28, 1930, the official name of the city became Istanbul. The old town is on the shores of the Bosphorus, separating Europe from Asia and the Black Sea - from the Marmara Sea. Today, the city is much larger and covers both the European and the Asian parts. Though it is no longer the capital of Turkey, Istanbul has a major position in the country's economy and culture, being Turkey's most important international trade center. Istanbul's old popular name is Ţarigrad.
Ankara (known as Angora until 1930, and during the classical Ancyra) is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. It has a population of 3,482,000 inhabitants (2003). At the same time it is the province's capital of the same name. Ankara is an important commercial and industrial center. It is also a trade center for the surrounding agricultural area. Before becoming the capital of the country, Ankara was famous for its goat's wool (Angora wool). Located in the center of Anatolia, it is an important node, both for trade and for itself, being the center of Turkish roads and railways. It has several universities, the National Library, the Archaeological Museum, the Ethnographic Museum and the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. Mausoleum Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the most important personality of Turkey of the 20th century, is also located in Ankara. Izmir - The modern city of Izmir (before Smyrna) is a city and port in western Turkey, the capital of Izmir province, seated in the bay of the same name. Izmir is one of the largest ports in Turkey. It is one of the largest industrial centers, producing clothes, soaps, food, etc.
Cities-resorts of the Turkish seaside
The most beautiful are Marmaris and Kemer - Mediterranean seaside towns that from spring to autumn are filled with tourists attracted by the abundance of hotels and the beauty of the Mediterranean Sea. Situated near the cities of Izmir and Antalya, tourists can come to Kemer or Marmaris by plane. There are special flights from the airport that take them directly to hotels. Stores, restaurants, all full of distinctive luminosity, embellish the Mediterranean night-time scenery. Every day, hundreds of sea-going sailboats leave the shore and others go to Rhodes Island. The beaches are always full, and these localities bring important revenue to Turkey.
The main areas or objectives in Turkey
The main areas or objectives: Istanbul, the great metropolis on the Bosphorus, with countless tourist attractions: the Paleologue Palace, the Cathedral of St Sophia - 6th century built by Justinian and turned into a mosque in 1456, and in 1935 in a museum; Blue Mosque / Sultanahmet Chami with 6 minarets; Soliman's 16th century magnificent, the most beautiful and sumptuous, with 4 great minarets; Galata Tower (Genoese, 120 m tall); Topkapi Palace (15th century); The Archaeological Museum, with a rich collection, which features the famous sarcophagus of Alexander the Great, s.a .; The Aegean seaside, with Izmir, the ruins of Troy, Bergama (the ancient Pergam), Sart (the ancient Sardes, the capital of the Cresus kingdom of Lidia), the Ephesus (the Hellenistic vestiges, the Roman and the Paleocratic - the place where he lived his last years in the Mother of God ), Bodrum (the ancient Halicarnas, the hometown of Herodotus and the capital of the famous Mauson King, with a magnificent castle of the Knights of Rhodes); the southern shore (Mediterranean), the famous Antalya heliomarine resort, Adana (with a famous archaeological museum and the stone bridge built by Hadrian), Antakya (the ancient Antioch). Other centers: Pamukkale, with a unique karst relief in the world (a petrified cascade of about 100m of stalactites); The capital, with Ögust Mabeti (the temple of August, the 1st century AD), the column of Julian (4th century AD), the Mausoleum of Kemal Atatürk and others; then the surrounding area of Ankara, with the remains of Boğaz Kale / old Hattua, the capital of the Hittite state and Yassihöyük / the ancient Gordion capital of the ancient kingdom Frigia, where Alexander the Great cut the Gordian knot; Diyarbakir (a giant fortress, 1.5km long), Van Lake (a true inner sea), and Mount Ararat (5137m). The Edirne (Adrianopol), the Selimiye mosques (16th century), Yldirim (14th-15th century) and Beyazit II are mentioned in the European side.
Turkish cuisine: what to taste in your holiday
It is ranked No. 3 in the world. Turkish coffee comes from Ethiopia and was introduced to Istanbul by the governor of Yemen in the 19th century. 16. The national beverage is Raki, also known as the "Leo Power". Traditional food is kebab, borek, dolma, sweets like baclava, shit.
What documents do you need for a turkish vacation
To travel to Turkey, you must have a passport valid for at least three months. The tourist visa obligation was canceled in 2005, but for travel other than for tourist purposes and for stays longer than 90 days, you need a visa.